The First World Water day was first celebrated on 22 March 1993 by The United Nations General Assembly. Every year there are different themes selected by United Nations Water, however, the theme for World Water Day 2018 is ‘Nature for Water’. The theme is especially to encourage people and to know how to reduce the floods, droughts, water pollution and to protect the ecosystem. Every drop of water is precious and without water, life would not exist on the planet. Living things rely on water, 60% of the adult body is made of water and if there is no water body gets dehydrated and can also lead to death. Some humans can survive without food, but without drinking water, one can not survive.
One of the major problem all over the world is the water pollution. It refers to any change in the physical, biological, or chemical properties of water. It affects the drinking water, river, lakes, and oceans. Water gets polluted due to chemicals, foreign substances, fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural runoff, sewage, and food processing waste, lead, mercury, wastes from industrial discharges, and chemical contamination from the hazardous waste site. It is not just humans who are harmed by the polluted water but in overall it is harmful to the ecosystem such as plants, animals, fish, and other organisms.
Few steps for prevention:
- Save water: The more water you save the less water gets contaminated. Simple steps of saving water are by turning off the water taps while washing vessels, brushing teeth, not using the washing machine, not filling water when it is not required etc.
- Do not throw waste: Stop throwing paints, oil, medicines into the sink or in the toilet. They all meet down the line and mix with water resources and water gets contaminated.
- Clean drains: Drains are required to be cleaned on regular basis. Most of the places do not have proper drains, especially in rural areas. The water which is collected in the sea and ocean.
- Clean beaches and lakes: It is our own responsibility to take care of our nature. Seawater is all contaminated and requires regular cleaning. Due to contaminated water in the sea, some organisms living in the polluted sea also make humans sick. Polluted water can cause many health problems such as diarrheal diseases, including cholera, guinea worm disease, typhoid, and dysentery.
It is no longer a disaster; it’s the consequence of human activity. It affects all parts of the environment by a shortage in water supply, surface water, and groundwater. It can last for months or years. It usually occurs when there is no rain or snow over a period of time. The land gets dried, dusty, and cracked. Drought affects not only humans but also animals and plants. Water is the important part of our daily lives. We need it to drink, cook, wash etc.
Few steps for prevention:
- Rainwater harvesting: One should be aware how to utilize water with the help of rainwater harvesting which helps in collection of water from the roof and other suitable catchments.
- Recycled water: The water which is used (wastewater/sewage) can be treated and purified.
- Transvasement: Canals or inter-basin transfer of river water, help solve the crisis in drought-prone areas.
- Plant trees: Planting trees can reduce the problem of drought. It not only saves the land but also helps provide food in times of drought. Trees reduce damage during drought and floods.